Osteosarcopenia: del envejecimiento de la unidad óseo-muscular a la enfermedad

Daysi Antonia Navarro Despaigne, Consuelo Prado Martínez, Blanca Rosa Manzano Ovies

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Resumen

Introducción: La masa muscular y la ósea tienen igual origen embriológico, desarrollo y función constituyendo la unidad hueso-musculo. Sin embargo, las enfermedades asociadas al envejecimiento de esta unidad, son consideradas de manera independiente. En los últimos años, se evidencia  el efecto aditivo nocivo que presentan la sarcopenia y la osteopenia/osteoporosis en la calidad de vida y la salud del adulto mayor, surge el concepto de Osteosarcopenia. La población cubana una de las mas envejecidas  de América Latina. Enlos adultosmayores sereportan: 1)  disminución progresiva de la masa y la fuerza musculares, y 2) las caídas accidentales en el hogar(probables por fragilidad) están entre susprincipales causas de muerte, lo que sugiere que un grupo de estos adultos mayores pudieran tener osteosarcopenia, por lo que se requiere desarrollar capacidades para su prevención.
Objetivos: Revision narrativa para actualizar 1) aspectos del  envejecimiento de la unidad oseo-muscular, 2) la importancia de la osteosarcopenia, sus criterios diagnósticos y opciones terapéuticas.
Método: Revisión exhaustiva de artículos completos, en idioma inglés y español, descargados   de forma manual,obtenidos de las bases de datos  Pubmed, Scielo Regional y Google Scolar.
Conclusiones: La infiltración grasa de la unidad músculo- hueso  es el evento más importante del envejecimiento, no existe uniformidad en el diagnóstico de sarcopenia y  hasta el presente un aporte proteico de calcio, y vitamina unido a ejercicios de fuerza  son las principales opciones terapéuticas. No se dispone de fármacos que actúen al unísono sobre las dos entidades que conforman la osteosarcopenia.

Palabras clave

osteosarcopenia; etiopatogenia; envejecimiento; diagnostico oseo-muscular; adulto mayor; Cuba

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